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3 Sep 2022

GreenAgric Seed

GreenAgric Seed
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GreenAgric Now Sells CBD Cannabis Seeds ...

for Improved Health

Click on this link ...

for all the details and prices ...

SA mired in a cost of living crisis ...
SA mired in a cost of living crisis ...

SA mired in a cost of living crisis

In South Africa, people who are unable to afford a healthy diet increased from 37.2 million in 2017 to 38.7 million in 2020 ...

The cost of a healthy diet increased in Rand value on Wednesday, from R68.93 to R82.38 per person per day !!! ...

Food Insecurity increased the most in Africa ...

One in five people in Africa (20.2% of the population) were facing hunger in 2021 ...

There is a real danger these numbers will climb even higher in the months ahead ...

The global price spikes in food, fuel and fertilisers that we are seeing as a result of the crisis in Ukraine, threaten to push countries around the world into famine ...

The result will be global destabilisation, starvation and mass migration on an unprecedented scale ...

We have to act today to avert this looming catastrophe ...

Until agrifood systems are transformed, become more resilient and deliver lower cost nutritious foods and affordable healthy diets for all, food insecurity and malnutrition will continue ...

How Important is Food Security & Your Health ?

'Grow Your Own Organic Food' in ...
GreenAgric Greenhouse Tunnels ...

Discounts of up to 30% on GreenAgric's Published Prices ... 
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Chat with GreenAgric Consulting ...
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Worldwide Famine
Worldwide Famine

Chronic Undernourishment rose to 828 million last year

Global Hunger toll soars by 150 million as Covid and Ukraine war make their mark

Tenth of world’s population now chronically undernourished, with spectre of widespread famine drawing ever closer ...

Globally, the number suffering from chronic undernourishment rose to 828 million last year

That total is expected to rise even further in the next year – a scenario that could see some of the world’s poorest fall into famine, the most extreme form of food deprivation ...

The result will be global destabilisation, starvation and mass migration on an unprecedented scale ...

The 2022 edition of The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World report was jointly published by the Food and Agriculture Organization, IFAD, Unicef, WFP and the World Health Organization ...

How Important is Food Security & Your Health ?

'Grow Your Own Organic Food' in ...
GreenAgric Greenhouse Tunnels ...

Discounts of up to 30% on GreenAgric's Published Prices ... 
Click on this link for all the details ...
https://www.greenagric.com/GreenAgric.co.za.html

Chat with GreenAgric Consulting ...
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The GreenAgric Group 
Open 7 to 7 - 7 days a week

Calls for reform of SA's 'ancient' pesticide regulations !!! ...

Most Commercially Farmed & Store Bought Food is TOXIC
Most Commercially Farmed & Store Bought Food is TOXIC

X Many pesticides banned in the European Union are still being used extensively in South African agriculture !!! ...

X A public health expert says this poses a danger to farm workers and consumers !!! ...

X Civil society network Unpoison has made various submissions to government to update the regulatory framework ...

X The Department of Agriculture has been unresponsive !!! ... 

WHY ? ... because this ANC Gov are being 'bought' by the chemical manufacturers !!! ...

South Africa’s regulations on agricultural pesticides are "ancient" according to a public health specialist. Many of the active ingredients in pesticides still used on local crops have already been banned in the European Union (EU) because of the danger they pose to farm workers, consumers and the environment ...

Leslie London, head of the Division of Public Health Medicine at the University of Cape Town, says the weed killer, glyphosate, widely used in South Africa but banned in some EU countries, can be bought in gardening stores that stock herbicides ...

London has made several submissions on behalf of civil society network Unpoison to reform regulations on pesticides. But there has been NO RESPONSE from the Department of Agriculture !!! ...

In early May, Women on Farms Project (WFP) marched against the use of hazardous pesticides and demanded legislation governing pesticides in South Africa be updated ... with NO RESPONSE from Gov !!!

A 2019 study by WFP, supported by Oxfam South Africa, looked at 456 active ingredients approved in South Africa ...

It found 67 pesticides that are banned in the EU ...

It also found that there is a lack of research and monitoring of the effects on the health of workers ...

The South African pesticide industry is currently regulated by the Fertilisers, Farm Feeds, Seeds and Remedies Act (FFFAR) ... 
that dates back to 1947 !!! ...

All pesticide registration and product labelling happens under the FFFAR Act ...

Regulation "hasn’t kept up with modern thinking around pest control", said London ...

How pesticides are used on farms comes down to the instructions on the label ...
The police would have to act against farmers who contravene these instructions ...
something unlikely to happen !!! ...

In its submissions to the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development, Unpoison said that weak pesticide regulations fail to comply with either section 24 of the Constitution ...
or the National Environmental Management Act (NEMA), which both guarantee that public health be protected ...

Unpoison proposed restrictions on aerial spraying of certain pesticides and made submissions on the lack of required training for those handling hazardous pesticides ...

"The product label is the law" ... 
This means that any farmer who infringes on these instructions is contravening FFFAR ...

There are also other regulations that guide pesticide use ...
The Occupational Health and Safety Act for instance requires that workers wear protective clothing when handling pesticides ... something that most commercial farmers just ignore !!! ...

Residues on crops should also comply with the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) of the country ...
If residues exceed the MRL, then the product cannot be traded ...
BUT NO CHECKS NOR TESTING ARE DONE !!! ...

GroundUp has tried repeatedly, but in vain, to get a response from the Department of Agriculture !!! ...

MAKES YOU THINK ...
DOESN'T IT ??? ...

'Grow Your Own'   
O
rganic Food
in GreenAgric Greenhouse Tunnels
and ensure Protection for Everyone's Health ...

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How Important is Food Security & Your Health ?
How Important is Food Security & Your Health ?

How Important is Food Security & Your Health ? ...

Meet the Cape Flats mom steering kids away from gangs and towards food gardens ...

Hanover Park on the Cape Flats carries the stigma of gang violence and substance abuse ...

As a single mother of four, she is changing this perception through a food garden that provides a positive outlet for troubled kids ...

Renshia Manuel started growing her own food out of desperation as a means of putting food on her family's table after she'd lost her job ...

That was more than seven years ago, and today Renshia runs her own business ...

A small patch of once-barren land behind a high school in Hanover Park has been transformed into an urban oasis, where community members learn to grow their own food with limited resources and space ...

The Cape Flats, with its sandy and wind-swept terrain, lies away from the fertile grounds in the shade of Table Mountain ...

The path around Mount View High School leads to an explosion of green. Stretched shade cloth hangs above plants. Tomatoes, bell peppers, and spinach rise from the soil ...

A Greenhouse Grow Tunnel exposes the silhouette of seedlings ...

"I was unemployed, and I couldn't find work. It was purely out of desperation that I started a food garden, and that would literally be our supper," says Renshia.

If Renshia could do it ... so can You ...

How Important is Food Security & Your Health ?

Grow Your Own Organic Food in GreenAgric Greenhouse Tunnels and be assured of 'Fresh Great Tasting Healthy Food on the Table Every Day' ...

Discounts of up to 30% on GreenAgric's Published Prices ...
Click on this link for all the details ...
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Chat with GreenAgric Consulting ...
Click on this link for our contact details ...
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We look forward to hearing from you soon ...
Open 7 to 7 - 7 days a week

Rewards : 'Fame & Fortune'

The Greta Effect
The Greta Effect

Looking for South Africa's version ...
of the Greta Effect
Is that You or someone you know ? ...

Must have a Passion for Sustainable Farming and the Growing of No-Till Organic Food Crops

Someone who can take The GreenAgric Group to the next level and beyond ...

Rewards : 'Fame & Fortune'

Contact Pete Moore of ...
The GreenAgric Group
https://GreenAgric.com
Email : PeteMoore@GreenAgric.com
Available on WhatsApp & Signal on +27723872293
Telegram : @GreenAgric
Twitter : @GreenAgricThe
Open 7 to 7 - 7 days a week


Soek na Suid Afrka se GRETA EFEK
Is dit jy of iemand wat jy ken ?

Moet n Passie he vir die Volkome Voedsel Versekering manier van Boer en die Bewerking van Geen-Omspit Organiese Voedsel Produkte

Iemand wat die GreenAgric Groep na nuwe hoogtes en meer kan ly ...

Rewards : 'Fame and Fortune'

Kontak Pete Moore van die GreenAgric Groep by https://GreenAgric.com 
Email : PeteMoore@GreenAgric.com 
Op WhatsApp & Signal by +27723872293
Telegram : @GreenAgric
Twitter : @GreenAgricThe 
Oop vanaf 7 - 7 - 7 dae n week

Rewards : 'Fame & Fortune'

The Greta Effect
The Greta Effect

Looking for South Africa's version ...
of the Greta Effect ...
Is that You or someone you know ?

Must have a Passion for Sustainable Farming and the Growing of No-Till Organic Food Crops

Someone who can take The GreenAgric Group to the next level and beyond ...

Rewards : 'Fame & Fortune'

Contact Pete Moore of ...
The GreenAgric Group
https://GreenAgric.com
Email : PeteMoore@GreenAgric.com
Available on WhatsApp & Signal on +27723872293
Telegram : @GreenAgric
Twitter : @GreenAgricThe
Open 7 to 7 - 7 days a week

Stop the War in Ukraine
Stop the War in Ukraine

Vladimir Putin and Russia are Solely Responsible for the Latest Increases in Food Prices ...

All around the world, prices for food are soaring and reaching levels we have not seen in over a decade ...

Covid, droughts, storms and the high cost of energy and fuel, have already led to drastic price increases over the past two plus years ...

But when it comes to the current record-level food prices, responsibility lies with one man alone ...
Vladimir Putin !!! ...

It is in our common interest to ensure that President Putin's war of aggression does not cause more suffering, hunger and crises than it has so far ...

The Russian president is waging an arbitrary war of aggression against Ukraine. 

His military is bombing residential buildings and maternity hospitals - killing men, women and children. 

Putin's War of Aggression is also making people around the world go hungry, because Ukraine is one of the world's most important breadbaskets.

° The Russian army is purposefully targeting grain silos, tractors and fields. 

° Ukrainian farmers are unable to plant their crops due to the war. 

° Russia is blocking the export of grain crops from Ukraine harbours.

Worldwide Hunger is being used as an instrument of war !!! ...

As a result, the war in Ukraine will destroy livelihoods on the African continent, in the Arab world and in other regions that import a large share of their wheat from Ukraine and Russia - through ports in which ships can now no longer dock nor depart.

Since the beginning of the war, the global price of wheat has doubled, the price of food oil has also risen sharply, and the already high cost of fertiliser has added to the cost of food production.

Russia claims that European sanctions on Moscow have caused the increase in the price of wheat. BullShit !!! ...

The reality is that not a single sanction is directed at food shipments. 

Europe and the West have reacted to President Putin's war of aggression by imposing targeted sanctions against those in Moscow who have drawn up the plans for this destruction.

We do not want war - neither this one, nor any other war !!! ...

Because we believe in the vow that the international community made in the Charter of the United Nations: Reaffirming the "faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small".

Many people in Russia, as well, do not want this war. And President Putin knows this. That is exactly why he decreed that this war may not be called a war in his country.

What happens in one part of the world has a direct impact on other parts. Consequently, we must assume responsibility for each other, as a global community. This holds true for the climate crisis, which we can only overcome by acting in concert, and it holds just as true for this war.

Putin's War of Aggression is not a purely European or Western affair. It affects us ALL OF US - by undermining international law, which makes our world a less safe place, and by driving up prices for food, which creates more hunger, suffering and instability across the globe.

Remaining 'neutral' is not an answer - but rather a luxury that causes hunger !!! ...

GreenAgric has been advising the way forward for the past two years and more ...

'Grow Your Own' ...
Sustainable Organic Food Crops
in GreenAgric Greenhouse Tunnels
for Improved Health ✓
for Food Security ✓

Only GreenAgric Offers ...
Free Delivery to most places on SA
Free Assistance with your DIY Tunnel Installations
Free Ongoing 'Best Help and Advice' with 'Growing Your Own Organic Food Crops'

GreenAgric Greenhouse Tunnels ✓ are the Very Best Value for Money in Southern Africa

GreenAgric Consulting ✓ provides 'Best Help and Advice' to both the farming community and home gardeners

GreenAgric Recruitment ✓ is a Specialist Management and Skilled Workers Recruitment Consultancy to the Agricultural and Allied Industries

Contact The GreenAgric Group via ...
Signal or WhatsApp on +27 72 387 2293
Telegram : @GreenAgric
Twitter : @GreenAgricThe
We are also available on Twitter, MeWe, Facebook and Messenger
Email : Sales@GreenAgric.com
Please visit GreenAgric's Website
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Open 7 to 7 - 7 days a week

We look forward to hearing from you soon

Food that can help prevent climate disasters
Food that can help prevent climate disasters

Food that could Prevent Climate Disasters ...

Farmers are showing that what you grow, and where you grow it, could help prevent future disasters ...

Climate change has increased the number of large wildfires occurring each year and increased the length of the fire season in which wildfires are more likely. 

Since the Chilean blaze in 2017, major wildfires have also raged in the Amazon, California and Australia, with farmers paying the cost through lost livestock and crops. 

And it's not just fires – major weather disasters caused by climate change, including floods, droughts and storms, have increased five-fold in the past five decades.

If the trend for more disasters continues, it will take a combination of innovation and smarter farming to mitigate those losses. 

The solutions for farming in a changing climate can be both impressively scientific and surprisingly simple.

The term "regenerative agriculture" includes a spectrum of farming practices, from the no-till movement to companion planting, but at its heart are techniques that have been used by farmers for centuries, and are now considered as important for reversing the climate impact of agriculture. 

The interest in regenerative agriculture has received a boost recently, as environmental scientists estimate it could help to avoid carbon emissions, improve soil health, conserve water, as well as protect against future climate disasters.

Regenerative agriculture practices, like using green manure and organic farming, could help to sequester a further 14-22 gigatonnes of CO2e.

The drive to reduced-carbon farming and disaster resilience needs to be both traditional and modern.

People can help share the stories about the food and that's facilitated by tech. But you don't trust the tech, you trust the farmer. There is a very strong temptation to look at science and big-tech solutions to solve our problems but we don't pay enough attention to small solutions that already work, especially if they come from cultures and communities. Sometimes indigenous tribes and smaller communities have the answers.

It is not just the weather that farmers need to predict. With climate change, there will also be an increase in the number of extreme natural disasters. The total number of disaster events worldwide has been increasing in recent decades, with floods, storms and extreme temperature among the most common types of event.

'Grow Your Own' ...
Sustainable Organic Food Crops
in GreenAgric Greenhouse Tunnels
for Improved Health ✓
for Food Security ✓

Only GreenAgric Offers ...
Free Delivery to most places on SA
Free Assistance with your DIY Tunnel Installations
Free Ongoing 'Best Help and Advice' with 'Growing Your Own Organic Food Crops'

GreenAgric Greenhouse Tunnels ✓ are the Very Best Value for Money in Southern Africa

GreenAgric Consulting ✓ provides 'Best Help and Advice' to both the farming community and home gardeners

GreenAgric Recruitment ✓ is a Specialist Management and Skilled Workers Recruitment Consultancy to the Agricultural and Allied Industries

Contact The GreenAgric Group via ...
Signal or WhatsApp on +27 72 387 2293
Telegram : @GreenAgric
We are also available on Twitter, MeWe, Facebook and Messenger
Twitter : @GreenAgricThe
Email : Sales@GreenAgric.com
Please visit GreenAgric's Website
https://GreenAgric.com
Open 7 to 7 - 7 days a week

We look forward to hearing from you soon

Noisy Soil
Noisy Soil

Why soil is a surprisingly noisy place ...

Worms, grubs and roots rummaging unseen beneath our feet produce a cacophony of sounds that we are only just starting to listen to in an attempt to understand more about life underground.

The first time that Marcus Maeder stuck a noise sensor into the ground, it was on a whim. A sound artist and acoustic ecologist, he was sitting in a mountain meadow and pushed a special microphone he'd built into the soil. "I was just curious," says Maeder, who is working on a dissertation on the sounds of biodiversity at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland.

He certainly wasn't prepared for the clamour of sounds that flooded his headset. "They were very strange," he says. "There was thrumming and chirring and scraping. You need a whole new vocabulary to describe it."

Maeder was eavesdropping, he realised, on creatures that live in the soil.

Ecologists have long known that the ground beneath our feet is home to more life, and more diverse life, than almost any other place on Earth. To a layperson, soil seems little more than a compact layer of dirt. But in fact, the ground is a labyrinthine landscape of tunnels, cavities, roots and decaying litter.

In just a cup of dirt, researchers have counted up to 100 million life forms, from more than 5,000 taxa. Underground denizens range from microscopic bacteria and fungi, pencil-dot-sized springtails and mites, to centipedes, slugs and earthworms that can reach several metres in length. They are joined by moles, mice and rabbits that live at least some of their lives in underground tunnels and dens.

It's a staggering amount of biodiversity," says Uffe Nielsen, a soil biologist at Western Sydney University in Australia. It's also a vital one – collectively, these subterranean communities form much of the basis for life on our planet, from the food we eat to the air we breathe.

Today, in a relatively new field known as soil bioacoustics – others prefer terms such as biotremology or soil ecoacoustics – a growing number of biologists are capturing underground noises to open a window into this complex and cryptic world. They've found that something as simple as a metal nail pushed into the dirt can become a sort of upside-down antenna if equipped with the right sensors. And the more researchers listen, the more it becomes apparent how much the ground below us is thrumming with life.

Eavesdropping on this cacophony of underground sounds promises to reveal not only what life forms reside below our feet but also how they go about their existence – how they eat or hunt, how they slither past each other unnoticed, or drum, tap and sing to get one another's attention. Life underground "is a black box", says Nielsen. "As we open it, we realise how little we know."

Understanding this underground life is important because soil ecology is crucial. "Soil helps to transform the nutrient elements like carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium that feed plants – for food, for forests, or to fill the air with oxygen, so we can all breathe," says Steven Banwart, a soil, agriculture and water researcher at the University of Leeds in the UK, who co-wrote an overview of the functions of soil in the Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. Worms, grubs, fungi, bacteria and other decomposers are involved in every step.

And every soil organism produces its own soundtrack. Root-munching larvae emit short clicks as they break the fibres of their meal. Worms rustle as they crawl through tunnels. So do plant roots as they push past grains of soils, as Swiss researchers reported in 2018. But the roots move slower than the worms do, and at a steadier pace. By distinguishing these sounds, soil acoustics stands to shed light on some hitherto unanswerable questions. Like, when do plant roots grow? At night? During the day? Only when it rains ?

We humans might be among the last to discover this underground soundtrack. Birds can often be seen hopping across lawns with their heads cocked. Researchers believe that they do this because they're listening for worms or larvae below. Often, they peck at the soil at just the right moment to pull up their unsuspecting quarry.

The North American wood turtle, for its part, capitalises on the attention that worms pay to vibrations from the patter of rain. The turtle stomps its feet on the ground to mimic that patter so the worms come to the surface, providing a juicy snack.

Subterranean vibrations can also be key for what appear to be intended signals. Mole rats, living in underground burrows, are thought to communicate with other mole rats in the vicinity by banging their heads or feet against the walls of their tunnels. Leafcutter ants have been observed to create noises when they get buried during nest cave-ins. Other worker ants rush to the spot and start to dig to rescue their nestmate.

Some of these underground sounds are audible to the human ear, but many are too high or too low in frequency (as well as in volume). To capture these, researchers use tools like piezoelectric sensors, which work like the contact microphones you might clip onto a guitar. Attached to a nail, sometimes up to 30cm (11.8 inches) long, that has been pushed into the ground, these sensors detect vibrations that researchers then convert into electronic signals and amplify until humans can hear them.

Carolyn-Monika Görres, a landscape ecologist at Geisenheim University in Germany, was among those shocked to discover how much underground noise can reveal. Görres studies root-feeding beetle larvae known as white grubs – she's specifically interested in the gases, such as methane, that they emit. Biologists suspect that these small insects, of varying species, contribute substantial amounts of climate emissions, due to their sheer numbers. (Termites, for example, are estimated to produce about 1.5% of global methane emissions. For comparison, the amount from coal mining is 5-6%.)

Early on, Görres was stumped. How would she know how many of these inch-long larvae were living in a patch of soil? "Traditionally, you dig up the ground to see what's there," she says. "But then, everything is disturbed."

So Görres biked to meadows and forests around her town and buried two dozen acoustic sensors in the soil and recorded the larvae going about their business. When she plays the recordings to other people, "some say it sounds like the creaking of a tree", she says. "Others hear pieces of sandpaper being rubbed together."

Görres has learned that she can distinguish between the larvae of the two white grub species she studies – the common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) and the forest cockchafer (M. hippocastani) by virtue of a buzzing that's similar to the aboveground singing, or stridulation, of cicadas and grasshoppers.

The larvae do this by rubbing their mandibles together. "One could say they grind their teeth to talk to each other underground," Görres says. "The beauty about stridulations is that they seem to be species-specific, just like bird songs."

Once the larvae pupate, they switch to another noisemaking mechanism, rotating their abdomen within their shell and banging it against the shell wall.

What are they doing it for? That isn't clear. Above ground, insect stridulation attracts mates. But for larvae, "reproduction doesn't matter yet", Görres says. To learn more, the ecologist (who has dubbed her soil acoustic project "Underground Twitter") filled containers with sandy soil from the insects' natural habitat, added slices of carrots to keep the grubs happy, and took them to her lab.

She noticed that a larva kept on its own rarely stridulated. But if more than one shared a container, they sang – a lot. A trio of cockchafer larvae stridulated a total of 682 times during their first two-and-a-half hours together.

Görres suspects that the grubs sing to warn each other away. Larvae are consummate feeders – "their one purpose in life is to gain biomass," she says – and if too many share the same bit of soil, they start cannibalising each other. In support of this, she notes that scientists have spotted larvae changing course to avoid abdomen-banging pupae.

When we talk about sound, we mostly refer to pressure waves that travel through the air. As they hit our ears, they vibrate the eardrums, and our brains ultimately translate these oscillations into sounds.

But these waves can also travel through other media, like water or soil. Elephants know this well – they vocalise a low-frequency rumble that propagates through the ground, enabling them to keep in touch with far-flung brethren who pick up the signals with the soles of their feet.

Acoustic emissions can also travel through different media simultaneously. Male mole crickets (Gryllotalpa major) dig horn-like burrows into sandy soil, from which they stridulate by rubbing their wings together. The chirping aims to court females that are flying in the air. But it also travels as vibrations through the soil where it may warn off other male crickets in their own subterranean burrows.

Some animals have adapted their ears to better catch such substrate-borne vibrations. In the Namib Desert lives a golden mole, a small, furry mammal that is nocturnal and mostly blind. At night, the mole hunts for termites in the dunes by "swimming" through the sand with its head and shoulders submerged. Biologists think that it does so to listen for prey. One of the ossicles, or bones, in the mole's middle ear is massively enlarged. Researchers believe that this helps the animal to pick up ground-borne vibrations in a process that's similar to what happens with air-borne sound waves in human ears.

Snakes, on the other hand, receive vibrational signals through sensors in their jaws. The star-nosed mole sports a strange, tentacled nose that can pick up vibrations. And many insects have mechanosensors in their legs that register pulsing in the ground.

It makes perfect sense that underground animals incorporate sound into their lives, says Matthias Rillig, a soil ecologist at the Free University of Berlin. "Sound is a high-speed signal that comes at little extra cost," he says – certainly less than producing chemicals like pheromones for communication. Sound also tends to travel faster and farther than chemical signals. The rumble of an elephant can propagate for miles. Vibrations initiated by a small underground insect may only reach a few dozen centimetres, but in a world where much is measured in micrometres, that's still a long distance.

Do life forms other than animals sense these underground vibrations and make use of them? Rillig has begun a project in which he and Maeder bring tiny soil critters like springtails and soil mites into the lab and record them for hours to test how much noise they make, either alone or grouped with other species. The ecologist wonders if fungi might be able to register sounds coming from these micropredators and stay away from areas where they congregate, since some of them like to eat fungal filaments.

"Or a fungus could respond to sound cues of danger by increasing sporulation," says Rillig. This would help ensure that its genes get dispersed before it gets eaten.

There is already some evidence that plants, at least, make use of sound to help their survival. In tests, evolutionary ecologist Monica Gagliano offered garden pea plants (Pisum sativum) the option to grow their roots down different plastic tubes. All the tubes were filled with soil, but some were exposed to the vibrations of flowing water (running through a tube on the outside of the pipe). Gagliano, of the Biological Intelligence Lab at Southern Cross University, the University of Western Australia and the University of Sydney, reported that the pea plants favoured growing roots toward the sound of water, even though the water itself was not accessible to the plants and no moisture could seep into the tubes.

Besides informing ecologists, underground acoustics could help us take better care of the environment and detect pests that cause billions of dollars in damage every year. As far back as 1478, "pasture scarabs were causing significant damage to Swiss Alpine meadows to such an extent that the Bishop of Lausanne excommunicated the offending herbivores", scientists wrote in a 2015 review paper on root-feeding insects. (To name one current example, infestations of the grape root borer Vitacea polistiformis can decrease a grapevine's yield as much as 47%.)

Without a way to pinpoint infestations, ground managers commonly have to resort to fighting pests like these with blanket pesticide applications, says Louise Roberts, a bioacoustician at Cornell University. "But that kills all sorts of things underground." Often, it would be enough to treat just parts of a field or golf course, since soil insects tend to cluster. "But for that to work, you need to know where the pests are," she says.

And so Roberts and her colleagues have been conducting a study to see if ground managers can push sensors into turf grass and use the frequencies of collected sounds to pinpoint subterranean pest infestations and to identify the species. The work isn't done, but early results suggest it is possible, she says.

To their dismay, researchers are discovering that not everything they detect underground is exotic and new. Some noises are disturbingly familiar. When Maeder listens underground in his home country of Switzerland, "I can hear construction sites and highways that are far away. Even airplanes."

It's still unclear what impact human sound pollution has on subterranean life. "It's hard to believe it wouldn't have any," says Rillig.

Scientists are also finding that the underground orchestra of animal activity has started to fall silent in large tracts of land, particularly in intensely farmed fields, where "things go quiet", says Maeder.

A lessening of noises hints at diminished biodiversity and thus a less healthy soil. That dovetails with a recent report by the Food and Agriculture Organization finding that a third of the world's land has been at least moderately degraded, often through agriculture.

Maybe soil acoustics will help more people realize what we're in danger of losing, Maeder says. He has started a citizen science project that lends people in Switzerland acoustic sensors to listen for underground activity themselves. The recordings are being assembled into a national library of soil sounds with the hope of raising awareness.

Demand so far is high, Maeder says. "The sensors are always booked."

'Grow Your Own' ... Sustainable Organic Food Crops in GreenAgric Greenhouse Tunnels for Improved Health ✓ for Food Security ✓

Only GreenAgric Offers ...

✓ Free Delivery to most places on SA

✓ Free Assistance with your DIY Tunnel Installations

✓ Free Ongoing 'Best Help and Advice' with 'Growing Your Own Organic Food Crops'

GreenAgric Greenhouse Tunnels ✓ are the Very Best Value for Money in Southern Africa

GreenAgric Consulting ✓ provides 'Best Help and Advice' to both the farming community and home gardeners

GreenAgric Recruitment ✓ is a Specialist Management and Skilled Workers Recruitment Consultancy to the Agricultural and Allied Industries ...

Contact The GreenAgric Group on 

+27 72 387 2293

or via Signal or WhatsApp on +27 72 387 2293

Telegram : @GreenAgric

We are also available on MeWe, Facebook and Messenger and Twitter : @GreenAgricThe

Email : Sales@GreenAgric.com

Please visit GreenAgric's Website

https://GreenAgric.com

Open 7 to 7 - 7 days a week

We look forward to hearing from you soon



Food Prices are Increasing
Food Prices are Increasing

UN: War in Ukraine could raise food prices by at least 20% !!! ...

According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), disruption to agricultural activity could “raise international food and feed prices by 8-22%.” If the war affects the harvest, the FAO predicts that 8-13 million more people could suffer from malnutrition in 2022-2023 


'Grow Your Own' ...

Sustainable Organic Food Crops

in GreenAgric Greenhouse Tunnels ...

for Improved Health

for Food Security


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7 Mar 2022

Ukraine War 'Catastrophic for Global Food'

The war in Ukraine will deliver a shock to the global supply and cost of food ...
and the situation could get even tougher.
"Things are changing by the hour"
"We were already in a difficult situation before the war and now the war has added additional disruption to the supply chains ...

Russia and Ukraine are some of the biggest producers in agriculture and food globally.
Russia also produces enormous amounts of nutrients, key ingredients which enable plants & crops to grow.

"For me, it's not whether we are moving into a global food crisis - it's how large the crisis will be !!! ...

Analysts have also warned that the war would mean higher costs for farmers and lower crop yields. That could feed through into even higher costs for food.

The World must, in the long-term, reduce its dependency on Russia for global food production.
Climate change and growing populations had already been adding to the challenges the global food production system faces - all before the pandemic started.

The war will increase food insecurity in poorer countries ...
"We have to keep in mind that in the last two years, there's been an increase of 100 million more people that go to bed hungry... so for this to come on top of it is really worrying."

'Grow Your Own' ...
Sustainable Organic Food Crops
in GreenAgric Greenhouse Tunnels ...
for Improved Health
for Food Security

Only GreenAgric Offers ...
* Free Delivery to most places on SA
* Free Assistance with your DIY Tunnel Installations ...
* Free Ongoing 'Best Help and Advice' for growing your own Food Crops ...

GreenAgric are the Very Best Value for Money Tunnels in Southern Africa ...

GreenAgric Consulting provides 'Best Help and Advice' to both the farming community and home gardeners ...

GreenAgric Recruitment is a Specialist Management and Skilled Workers Recruitment Consultancy to the Agricultural and Allied Industries ...

Contact The GreenAgric Group on .
+27 72 387 2293
or via Signal or WhatsApp ...
on +27 72 387 2293
Telegram : @GreenAgric
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18 Feb 2022

GreenAgric are the Very Best Value for Money Tunnels in Southern Africa

Buy Yourself, a Loved One, Parents, Family, Friend or Someone In Need the Very Best Present ...

GreenAgric offers a Vast Range of Greenhouse Tunnels to best suite your specific requirements ...

GreenAgric's Greenhouse Tunnels
from 2.5m and up to 4m in height
from 5m and up to 15m in width
lengths from 6m up to 50m
Ask us for a quote now

'Grow Your Own' ...
Sustainable Organic Food Crops
in GreenAgric Greenhouse Tunnels ...
for Improved Health
for Food Security

Only GreenAgric Offers ...
* Free Delivery to most places on SA
* Free Assistance with your DIY Tunnel Installations
* Free Ongoing 'Best Help and Advice' for growing your own Sustainable Organic Food Crops

GreenAgric are the Very Best Value for Money Tunnels in Southern Africa ...

GreenAgric Consulting provides Free 'Best Help and Advice' to both the farming community and home gardeners, who 'Grow Sustainable Organic Food Crops'

Contact The GreenAgric Group on .
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16 Feb 2022
Ground Nuts
Ground Nuts

The Basics of Growing Groundnuts on a Small Scale

Groundnuts are high in protein, tasty, and a convenient and popular food. All of this makes them a potentially valuable source of nutrition in rural communities. Growing and selling them can also earn much-needed income. Loureine Muller, a groundnut agronomist at commodity trading company Triotrade, explains how to produce this crop.
Once lifted, groundnut plants should be stacked and left to dry for four to six weeks.

Groundnut production can hold many benefits for smallholder farmers, especially when included in a crop rotation programme. These benefits include enhancing the nitrogen content of the soil.

Groundnuts do best in warm regions, where the minimum air temperature does not fall below 15°C during the growing season. The optimal air temperature for production of the crop is between 24°C and 32°C. Dryland production requires an annual rainfall of between 450mm and 600mm for a good yield. Any type of irrigation will benefit the crop.

Groundnuts grow best in sandy soil with less than 15% clay. The best time to plant is from early November to no later than 25 November. Planting after this will result in a significant drop in yield, as the growing season will be too short for the plants to mature properly.

Soil Preparation ...
Prepare the land, and particularly the seedbed, thoroughly, ploughing or digging the soil and removing weeds. No plant residue should be left on the ground, as this can harbour diseases that may cause the crop to fail. The seedbed should be fine and level to ensure even germination as well as even maturing of the crop.

Planting ...
Use certified groundnut seed; its germination has been evaluated and its quality can be relied on.
Plant the seed in damp soil, as this will speed up germination. When planting by hand, use the point of a rake to make a furrow no deeper than a matchbox placed on its side (between 3cm and 5cm).
The rows should be 90cm apart; this will ensure that the groundnuts can absorb water easily from the soil and make it easier to control weeds.
Once the seed has been placed in the furrow, use a rake to close the furrow gently, keeping the seedbed even. Avoid making ridges on top of the row; this will bury the seed too deeply in the soil (‘earthing-up’), and may result in a yield loss of up to 50%.

Hoe the weeds that emerge between the planted rows as often as possible. Be careful not to hoe too close to the groundnut plants, as this may injure them and cause yield loss.
Another good alternative is to use mulch to surpress grass and weeds ...

Groundnuts take one to two weeks to germinate, and the plant will form a well-developed root system in the first few weeks.
Between 38 and 45 days after planting, the plant will start to flower.
The flowers bloom for only a day. After approximately a week, a small ‘peg’ appears where each flower was attached to the plant; at the tip of this peg is the embryo.
The peg grows downwards and buries the embryo in the soil; this becomes the groundnut pod filled with seed (the kernels).

Diseases ...
Scout the land regularly, and look for any signs of disease on the leaves. The leaves are the ‘factory’ of the plant and you therefore need to keep the leaf canopy healthy.
Early and late leaf spot can result in leaves dying and dropping off. This causes the pods to stop forming and leads to yield loss. Leaf diseases such as web blotch and botrytis cause a decrease in the quality of the crop as well as a drastic fall in yield.

Harvesting ...
Groundnut plants mature as the season draws to a close around the end of March or the beginning of April. To assess the maturity of the crop, choose between five and 10 plants at random and lift them from the soil. Leave them in the shade for a day to enable the kernels within the pods to shrink a little and make them easier to shell.
Remove all the kernels, gather the shells together, and look inside them. As a groundnut pod matures, the inner surface of the shell begins to show a brownish/blackish discolouration. If 75% of the inner shells of your sample show these darker colours, you can start lifting the crop.
Lifting groundnuts can be done by simply using a garden fork. Once lifted, the groundnut plants should be stacked and left to dry for four to six weeks.
Once the pods have dried, pick them from the plant by hand or rub the pods against a grid of some sort (wire mesh with fairly large openings, for example) to remove them from the plants. The harvested pods can now be bagged and transported to a processor or sold on the informal market.

Producing groundnuts requires considerable labour, but can earn a reasonable profit. To ensure a high yield and good quality, do your best to gain as much knowledge as you can about groundnut production well before planting!

Article Credits : Loureine Muller & Farmers Weekly

'Grow Your Own' ...
Sustainable Organic Food Crops
in GreenAgric Greenhouse Tunnels ...
for Improved Health
for Food Security

Only GreenAgric Offers ...
* Free Delivery to most places on SA
* Free Assistance with your DIY Tunnel Installations
* Free Ongoing 'Best Help and Advice' for growing your own Food Crops

GreenAgric are the Very Best Value for Money Tunnels in Southern Africa ...

GreenAgric Consulting provides 'Best Help and Advice' to both the farming community and home gardeners ...

GreenAgric Recruitment is a Specialist Management and Skilled Workers Recruitment Consultancy to the .MAgricultural and Allied Industries ...

Contact The GreenAgric Group on .
+27 72 387 2293
or via Signal or WhatsApp ...
on +27 72 387 2293
Telegram : @GreenAgric
We are also available on Twitter, MeWe, Facebook and Messenger ...
Twitter : @GreenAgricThe
Tik Tok : @GreenAgric
Please visit GreenAgric's Website ...

Open 7 to 7 - 7 days a week ...

We look forward to hearing from you soon ...


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